From Start to Finish.
Let us help determine any orthodontic problems and all of your treatment options. We’ll even discuss next steps and what to expect from treatment.

Glossary of Procedures


The process of cementing orthodontic bands to your teeth.  


The process of attaching brackets to your teeth using a special, safe tooth adhesive.  

Cephalometric X-ray

An x-ray of the head that shows the lateral relationship of your teeth and jaws to each other and to the rest of your facial structures.  


A meeting with your orthodontist and our staff. We generally take photos and any necessary x-rays to allow for a thorough diagnosis. Your Health History will be reviewed prior to a detailed examination. If orthodontics is recommended, treatment will be discussed and a written estimate will be given.  


The removal of cemented/bonded orthodontic bands/brackets.  

Extraoral Photographs

Facial photos taken by Dr. Koen or her staff.  


The first step in making a model of your teeth. You bite into a tray filled with a soft rubbery material. That material hardens to a stiff, rubbery consistency producing a mold of your teeth.  

lnterceptive Treatment

Two-phase orthodontic treatment is an alternative to a single-phase treatment with full braces, which normally occurs once the eruption of all permanent teeth has occurred. Although interceptive orthodontic treatment does not eliminate the need for full braces during adolescence, its advantages include the following:
  • Reduces the need for extraction of permanent teeth through the guidance of tooth eruption in moderately crowded situations
  • Reduces the need to compensate for jaw differences by tooth movement alone
  • Maximizes the opportunity to utilize growth for severe jaw discrepancies
  • Reduces the potential of injury to protrusive front teeth
  • Enhanced self-image resulting from facial and dental improvements
  • The ultimate success of interceptive treatment depends on two key elements: growth and cooperation


A process where an archwire is tied with steel or elastic ties to the brackets on your teeth.  

Panoramic X-rays

An x-ray taken by a machine that rotates around your head to give your orthodontist a picture of your teeth, jaws, and other areas of importance to your treatment.  

Wax Bite

A procedure to measure how well your teeth come together. You bite into a softened sheet of wax and leave bite marks in the wax. This helps your orthodontist relate the upper and lower models of your teeth together to match your bite.